The kiwifruit is an economically and nutritionally important fruit crop with remarkably high vitamin C content. Here, we provide the whole-genome sequence of a female individual from the Chinese kiwifruit cultivar Hongyang, which is a heterozygous diploid (2n = 2x = 58). The assembled draft genome sequence possesses ~140-fold next-generation sequencing data. It has a total length of 616.1 Mb and contains 39,040 genes, representing 81.3% of the kiwifruit genome. The genome assembly consists of 21,713 contigs and 5,110 scaffolds ( > 2 kb), with N50 sizes of 58.8 and 646.8 kb for contigs and scaffolds, respectively. The final map spanned 5,504.5 cM across 29 linkage groups and was composed of 4,301 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, with a mean marker density of 1.28 cM per marker. Using 3,379 markers that were uniquely aligned to the assembled scaffolds, a total of 853 scaffolds were anchored to the 29 kiwifruit pseudochromosomes, comprising 73.4% (452.4 Mb) of the kiwifruit genome assembly. Of the 853 anchored scaffolds, 491 could be oriented (333.6 Mb, 73.7% of the anchored sequences). The majority of genes are found in long contiguous stretches of gene-dense euchromatin located on the distal portions of each chromosome arm. Comparative genomic analysis reveals that the kiwifruit has undergone an ancient hexaploidization event (γ) shared by core eudicots and two more recent whole-genome duplication events.

A bioinformatics portal will provide a mechanism by which researchers in different locations can develop and contribute bioinformatics tools and information to the project. A common set of standards for BAC sequencing and finishing, and for gene nomenclature, and structural and functional gene annotation. The objectives of the kiwifruit sequencing project are to: produce a contiguous sequence of the gene rich, euchromatic arms of each of the 29 kiwifruit chromosomes process and annotate this sequence in a manner consistent and compatible with similar data from Arabidopsis, rice, tomato and other plant species. Create an international bioinformatics portal for comparative Ericales genomics which can store, process, and make available to the public the sequence data and derived information from this project and associated genomics activities in other Ericales plants.


If you have used KIR data or tools in your research, please cite KIR using the following references:

Yue J, Liu J, Ban R, Tang W, Deng L, Fei Z, Liu Y (2015) Kiwifruit Information Resource (KIR): a comparative platform for kiwifruit genomics. DATABASE 2015: bav113.

Huang S, Ding J, Deng D, Tang W, Sun H, Liu D, Zhang L, Niu X, Zhang X, Meng M, Yu J, Liu J, Han Y, Shi W, Zhang D, Cao S, Wei Z, Cui Y, Xia Y, Zeng H, Bao K, Lin L, Min Y, Zhang H, Miao M, Tang X, Zhu Y, Sui Y, Li G, Sun H, Yue J, Sun J, Liu F, Zhou L, Lei L, Zheng X, Liu M, Huang L, Song J, Xu C, Li J, Ye K, Zhong S, Lu B-R, He G, Xiao F, Wang H-L, Zheng H, Fei Z, Liu Y (2013) Draft genome of the kiwifruit Actinidia chinensis. Nat Comm 4: 2640.