Research Progress

Actinidiaceae, commonly known as kiwifruit, is the basal family within the Ericales. Approximately 54 species and 75 taxa have been described in Actinidia, all of which are perennial, deciduous and dioecious plants with a climbing or straggling growth habit. Of these, many are economically important horticultural species, e.g., Actinidia chinensis Planchon, A. deliciosa (A. chinensis var. deliciosa A. Chevalier), A. arguta (Siebold and Zuccarini) Planchon ex Miquel and A. eriantha Bentham. According to the research results and latest progresses of kiwifruit in recent years, we have summarized the major advances, mainly including allergen detection, breeding improvement, disease resistant, flavor compounds, functional metabolites, human health, and protein function. Users could select the dropdown list to view the corresponding field as follows:

Active substances Related genes Method Samples Description PMID
Active substances Related genes Method Samples Description PMID
Myo-inositol (MI)Ach09g171511.2 Ach09g171511.2 Ach00g332511.2 Ach00g332511.2 Ach01g093941.2 Ach01g093941.2Total RNA was extracted from mature fruit by a modified CTAB method ,then Real-time PCR analysis of MIPS, Analysis of MIPS activity, Analysis of MIPS activity were conducted.Actinidia eriantha, Actinidia rufa, Actinidia arguta, Actinidia deliciosaA. arguta had the greatest concentration of MI as well as the highest ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose. This suggests that conversion to MI from carbohydrates was most efficient in A. arguta during early fruit development. Overall activity of the enzyme was also maximal in young fruit, indicating that this developmental stage is the key point for MI synthesis in Actinidia.24184456
(R)-linalool (S)-linaloolTreating inflorescences with d(5)-linalool.Flower (Actinidia arguta)Both (R)- and (S)-linalool were produced naturally by the flowers, but 8-hydroxylinalool, 8-oxolinalool, and the lilac aldehydes and alcohols occurred predominantly as the (S) and 5'(S)-diastereoisomers, respectively.17466345
3-oxoambrox, 3beta-hydroxyambrox, 1alpha-hydroxyambrox, 3beta,6beta-dihydroxyambrox, 1alpha,6beta-dihydroxyambrox, and 1alpha,3beta-dihydroxyambroxCell suspension cultures of Actinidia deliciosa (Kiwifruit) yielded the regio- and stereospecific oxygenated products.Actinidia deliciosaMetabolites 1alpha,6beta-dihydroxyambrox and 1alpha,3beta-dihydroxyambrox were found to be new compounds.16792418
1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzyladenine (BA)The uptake, metabolism, and concentration of NAA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content were examined in the explants during the callus initiation period.Explant (Actinidia deliciosa)Except for a high IAA level measured at 12 h, IAA content decreased in tissues during a culture period of 96 h. NAA uptake was higher in petiolar edges than in the middle portion, and NAA was rapidly conjugated with sugars and aspartic acid inside the tissues. Free-NAA concentration in cultured petioles achieved an equilibrium with the exogenously applied NAA (0.27 μm) from 12 h, and it remained constant thereafter. The amide conjugation was triggered in apical and basal portions from 12 h and in the middle part from 48 h, with alpha-naphthylacetylaspartic acid being the major metabolite.10552137
 Ripen in the dark at 20° C.Actinidia deliciosaThe respiratory climacteric was delayed, compared with net starchsugar interconversion, and was accompanied by a general decline of pyruvate and all the glycolytic intermediates except fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. It is suggested that activation of SPS, amplified by futile cycles, may regulate the conversion of starch to sugars. The conversion of starch to sucrose was not accompanied by a consistent increase in hexose-phosphates, and UDP-glucose declined. The ATP/ ADP ratio was maintained or even increased. The onset of sugar accumulation correlated with an increase in SPS activity.24178320
Cytokinin zeatinIncubating explants for 24 hr on a basal nutrient medium supplemented with 30 muM i(6)Ade and then extracting the tissues and analyzing cytokinin contents using HPLC methodology.Explant (Actinidia arguta)Root and stem tissues may be sites of cytokinin biosynthesis in growing Actinidia plants and that cytokinin production may not be the critical factor controlling the beginning of shoot growth in the spring. A similar gradient of io(6)Ade accumulation was detected in growing stems, with relatively low activity. Growing leaves accumulated little io(6)Ade (7-26 nmol/g) during feeding, as did fruits (0-8 nmol/g) at various stages of development and maturation.16593769
Cytokinin zeatinTissue cultures of Actinidia kolomikta be maintained as callus through repeated passages on a nutrient medium.Tissue culture (Actinidia kolomikta)Plants may differ in their pathways for io(6)Ade biosynthesis and that cytokinin biochemistry has potential as a taxonomic character above the species and genus levels.16593660
ZeatinTissue cultures grown from stem explants.Tissue culture (three Actinidia species and a hybrid species)Activity converting i6Ade to io6Ade was also demonstrated in stem segments from intact plants where it was low in the tip (3 cm), highest in the region corresponding to rapid leaf growth and very low in the mature stem.Root segments converted i6Ade to io6Ade almost as rapidly as the most active region of the stem while leaf petioles produced little io6Ade. Fruits of A. arguta and A. chinensis produced little or no io6Ade, respectively.6497888
Actinidia chinensis Planch polysaccharide (ACPS)TLR2 TLR3 TLR4 TLR8 TLR9 PGLYRP1 RIPK2 (CARD3) TICAM-1 (TRIF) IRAK-2 EIF2αK2 (PKR) CSF2 (GM-CSF) CSF3 (G-CSF) CXCL10 IFN-β1 IL-1α IL-1β IL-6 IL-10 PELI1 PTGS2 (COX-2) LT-α (TNF-β) TNF-α NF-κB1 NF-κB2 IκB-a IκB-b IκB-L REL TNFAIP3 (A20) MAP3K1 IRF1 CLEC4E CD80The immunomodulatory effects on RAW264.7 macrophages and its molecular mechanisms were investigated.The polysaccharide from the roots of Actinidia eriantha (AEPS)They enhance the pinocytic and phagocytic activity, induce the production of NO, TNF-, IL-10, IL-1 and IL-6, promote the expression of accessory and costimu-latory molecules in RAW264.7cells. They promote cytoplasmic IκB-α degradation and increase nuclear NF-κB p65 levels in RAW264.7 cells.25659714
Phenolic contentThe present study determined the proximate composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic potential of A. arguta stem.Fractions of stem(Actinidia arguta)DPPH: ethyl acetate (IC50:14.28?μg/ml), n-butanol fractions (IC50:48.27?μg/ml). ethyl acetate fraction: inhibited NO production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) than other fractions (nitrite level to 32.14?μM at 200?μg/ml). hot water extract: inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase enzyme with IC50 of 1.71?mg/ml.25473361
Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and waterWe investigated the effects of hardy kiwis (Actinidia arguta, Lauraceae) stems on inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Raw 264.7 cells to test the hypothesis that antiinflammatory effects of A. arguta stems were exerted through the inhibition of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway.Stem (Actinidia arguta)Chloroform layer of A. arguta exerted antiinflammatory effects by the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. the chloroform layer had the greatest inhibitory effect on LPS-stimulated nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression in Raw 264.7 cells. reduced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase, and p38).25441150
Polysaccharides (ACPS1 and ACPS2)ACPS1 and ACPS2 were isolated from the roots of Actinidia Chinensis by DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephacryl S300 chromatography. Preliminary structural characterization was conducted by physicochemical property, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Meanwhile, in vitro immunomodulatory activities of the two polysaccharides were evaluated.Root (Actinidia Chinensis)Both exhibited remarkable antioxidant activity to scavenge the DPPH radical and significant protective effects on H2O2-induced HEK 293 cells death;and increase NO production and phagocytic activity of macrophages.25316423
Polyphenolic substances, mainly catechins and their dimersAntioxidant activity of the extract was determined in relation to the erythrocyte membrane oxidized with free radicals induced by UVB and UVC radiation and the compound AAPH. Chromatographic, spectrophotometric and fluorimetric methods were applied in the research.Leaf extract (Actinidia arguta)Substances contained in the extract effectively protect erythrocyte membranes against oxidation induced by physicochemical factors the kiwi extract increases fluidity of the erythrocyte membrane and causes an increase in packing disorder in the hydrophilic membrane area.25199699
Phenolic compoundsA rapid UPLC–MS method was developed to identify these phenols systematically.Radix Actinidia chinensis PlanchThese phenolic compounds might be responsible for the antitumor activity of the water extract of radix A. chinensis.24975212
B#NAME?These fractions were further identified by MALDI-TOF MS and HPLC-ESI-MS methods.Pericarp (Actinidia chinensis)Kiwifruit pericarp PAs may be explored as insecticides, food preservatives, and cosmetic additives. PAs possess potent antioxidant activity strongly inhibit the activity of tyrosinase.24939165
Actinidia chinensis Planch polysaccharide (ACPS)PARPCCK-8 method, flow cytometry ,Western blot.Radix (Actinidia chinensis)ACPS could inhibit the growth of SGC-7901 cells and induce apoptosis the optical density of SGC-7901 cells decreased, the longer the acting time, the lower the optic density.24758086
Peel ethanol extracts (ACE)The Neuro-2A cells pre-treated by ACE (50-200μg/mL) or allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) (50μM) for 6h, in turn, the cells were treated with MG (250μM) for 24h.Peel (Actinidia callosa)ACE or AITC treatment markedly inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the elevation of caspase-3 and capase-9 levels induced by MG in Neuro-2A cells. The protective effects of ACE on MG-induced Neuro-2A apoptosis were attenuated while Nrf2 knockdown.24707974
ActinidinSix diets, each containing 1 of the 6 different protein sources and each containing dietary actinidin from the addition of finely ground freeze-dried green kiwifruit (treatments), and 6 diets that were comparable but did not have dietary actinidin (gold replaced green kiwifruit, controls) were formulated.Actinidia deliciosa, Actinidia chinensisDietary actinidin increased the gastric digestion of beef muscle, gluten , and SPI and increased the GE of the diets containing beef muscle and zein. There was an inverse correlation between gastric protein digestion and DM retained in the stomach In conclusion, dietary actinidin increased gastric protein digestion and accelerated the GE for several dietary protein sources.24431326
The kiwi fruit peptide kissperThe anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of kissper were tested on Caco-2 cells and on the colonic mucosa from 23 patients with CD, by challenging with the lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (EC-LPS) and monitoring the appropriate markers by Western blot and immunofluorescence.Green kiwi fruit(A. deliciosa)The peptide kissper was highly effective in preventing the increase of LPS-induced ROS levels in both the Caco-2 cells and CD colonic mucosa. it controls the calcium increase, p65-nuclear factor (NF)-kB induction and transglutaminase 2 (TG2) activation inflammatory response in Caco-2 cells and CD colonic mucosa. Kissper efficiently counteracts the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in valuable model systems consisting of intestinal cells and CD colonic mucosa.24168016
Cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CPI)Fifteen N-terminal amino acids were identified by Edman degradation, and 77% of the rCPI primary structure was confirmed by mass fingerprint. The structural homology of recombinant CPI (rCPI) to its natural counterpart has been clearly demonstrated in immunological assays (immunoblot and ELISA inhibition).Green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa)RCPI reveals antifungal properties toward pathogenic fungi (Alternaria radicina and Botrytis cinerea) designates it as an interesting model protein for the exploration of plant phytocystatins - pathogen interactions.23830694
Actinidia callosa var. ephippioides (ACE)Determine the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activities of ethyl acetate fraction of ACE (EA-ACE) using a model of λ-carrageenan (Carr)-induced paw edema in mouse model. In HPLC analysis, chemical characterization of EA-ACE was established.Ethyl acetate fraction of ACE (Actinidia callosa var. ephippioides)EA-ACE decreased the paw edema increased the activities of CAT, SOD, and GPx and decreased the MDA level in the edema paw at the 5th hr after Carr injection. EA-ACE contains betulinic acid, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid.23548129
Carbohydrate consisting of glucose, fructose, and sucroseKiwifruitThey reduce the rate of glucose diffusion by about 40% and profoundly reduce digesta mixing, in vivo estimates show the carbohydrate to be of low GI.kiwifruit have low glycemic impact and are suitable for those with diabetes. its physicochemical properties may be important in modulating carbohydrate digestion and absorption.23394992
Key micronutrients including potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, iron, and folateKiwifruitParticularly the gold variety, can increase the uptake and retention of the essential dietary minerals iron, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium.23394991
Kiwifruit is a food naturally high in dietary fiber,KiwifruitKiwifruit contains soluble and nonsoluble fiber components, both of which would be expected to affect the physical attributes of digesta as it transits the gastrointestinal tract.23394988
Kiwifruit are one of the premier dietary sources of vitamin CKiwifruitRecent studies have shown that the addition of kiwifruit to a marginal vitamin C diet markedly improves plasma vitamin C levels and can increase them to both healthy and optimal levels.23394985
Kiwifruit dietary fiber consists of cell-wall polysaccharidesKiwifruitThe functional properties of kiwifruit fiber survive in the foregut,hindgut benefits of kiwifruit may result from its interaction with other dietary sources of fiber. The proportions of pectic polysaccharide, hemicellulose, and cellulose in both green 'Hayward' and 'Zespri? Gold' are similar and are little affected by in vitro exposure to gastric and small intestinal digestion.23394983
Total saponinsThe protective activity of the total saponins from Actinidia valvata Dunn root (TSAV) was studied against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl(4)-) induced acute liver injury in mice.Root (Actinidia valvata)TSAV could protect mice against CCl(4)-induced acute liver damage possibly through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities and regulating apoptotic-related genes. TSAV alleviated CCl(4)-induced inflammatory infiltration and focal necrosis.TSAV exhibited antioxidant activity TSAV pretreatment significantly prevented the CCl(4)-induced hepatic damage as indicated by the serum marker enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP). Parallel to these changes, TSAV also prevented CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (MDA) and restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GR, and GPX), GSH and GSSG. TSAV significantly downregulated caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities and prevented CCl(4)-induced hepatic cell apoptosis. inhibited the serum iNOS and NO levels. inhibited the serum iNOS and NO levels.23243434
Ethyl-acetate fraction of A. callosa (EAAC)Evaluate the antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-)induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages and pawedema induced by λ-carrageenan activities of the methanol extract from A. callosa.Coarse powder (Actinidia callosa)EAAC demonstrated antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activity ethyl-acetate fraction of A. callosa (EAAC) showed the highest TEAC and DPPH radical scavenging activities, respectively. Treatment of male ICR mice with EAAC significantly inhibited the numbers of acetic acid-induced writhing response and the formalin-induced pain in the late phase. and a concentration-dependent inhibition on paw edema development after Carr treatment in mice. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of EAAC might be correlated to the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated that EAAC and the reference compound of catechin and caffeic acid decreased the LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells.23227095
Two new triterpenoids, 30-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-2alpha,3alpha,24-trihydroxyurs-12,18-diene-28-oic acid O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester and 2alpha,3beta,3,30-tetrahydroxyurs-12,18-diene-28-oic acid O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl esterStructures were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic studies.Root (Actinidia valvata)Both these two new compounds showed moderate cytotoxic activity in vitro against BEL-7402 and SMMC-7721 tumor cell line.23203098
The methanol extract and fractions from the stem of ACEEvaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities of the methanol extract and fractions from the stem of ACE. Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, total phenolic content, flavonoid content, inhibition on nitric oxide (NO) productions by LPS-induced RAW264.7 cell, and on lung cancer cell proliferation were employed.Stem (Actinidia callosa)Ethyl-acetate fraction (EA-ACE) showed higher TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging activities, polyphenol and flavonoid contents, respectively.decreased the LPS-induced NO production.Catechin also had good effects in the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. EA-ACE had the highest antiproliferative activity with an IC(50) (The concentrations required for inhibition of 50% of cell viability) of 469.17 ± 3.59 μg/mL. decreased expressions of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) in RAW264.7 cells.22928834
A cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CPI), 11 kDa in size, was purified from green kiwifruit to homogeneityGreen kiwifruitIn vivo, CPI was able to prevent artificial infection of apple and carrot with spore suspension of B. cinerea and A. radicina, respectively. CPI is most abundant in the outer layer of pericarp, near the peel, and the inner most part of the pulp-sites where it could act as a natural barrier against pathogens entering the fruit.22653546
Total saponin was extracted from the root of A. valvata (TSAVD)BEL-7402 and MHCC-97-H cells were also treated respectively with TSAVD at different concentrations for 24 h in wound healing and adhesion assays, and the effects of TSAVD on BEL-7402 and MHCC-97-H cells mobility and adhesion abilities were observed. Meanwhile, the effects of TSAVD on invasion and migration of BEL-7402 and MHCC-97-H cells were also investigated by transwell chamber in invasion and migration assays.Root of Actinidia valvata DunnOf all HCC cells, the highest inhibition by TSAVD was seen for BEL-7402 proliferation. TSAVD could restrain adhesion, invasion, mobility, and migration abilities of BEL-7402 and MHCC-97-H cells in vitro. TSAVD inhibited BEL-7402 cell and MHCC-97-H proliferation. In the wound healing assay, mobility abilities of BEL-7402 and MHCC-97-H cells in TSAVD treated groups were significantly weaker than those of the control group. After pretreatment for 24 h with TSAVD, adhesion abilities were reduced in both MHCC-97-H and BEL-7402 cells.22466944
Each extract and fraction was assayed for anti-inflammatory effect. The ethyl acetate fraction (EtOAc) contained the highest level (70.8% inhibition) of anti-inflammatory activityActinidia polygama Max. was subjected to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and the resulting ethanol extract of marc (SFEM) was subjected to sequential fractionation with various solvents.Actinidia polygama MaxThe novel ceramide was named actinidiamide, and was found significantly to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and β-hexosaminidase release in IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells.22313761
Two novel flavonoids, kaempferol 3- O- α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (2,4-di- O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl) β-D-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 3- O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (4-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl) β-D-galactopyranoside, along with three known ones, kaempferol-3- O-β-D-galactopyranoside, kaempferol, and 7-hydroxychromone,Structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods.Leaf (Actinidia valvata)Compounds 1-3 exhibited dose-dependent activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals, superoxide anion radicals, and hydroxyl radicals, and inhibited lipid peroxidation of mouse liver homogenate IN VITRO.20665371
Two new triterpenoidsStructure elucidation was accomplished by 1D, 2D NMR spectra (HMQC, HMBC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, TOCSY, and NOESY) and mass spectrometry (ESIMS).Root (Actinidia chinensis)Moreover, two known triterpenoids showed positive cytotoxic activity against LOVO and HepG2 cell lines. The structures of the new constituents were elucidated as 12α-chloro-2α, 3β, 13β, 23-tetrahydroxyolean-28-oic acid-13-lactone (1), 2α, 3α, 19α, 23, 24-pentahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (2).20550955
QuercetinQuercetin, on H2O2-induced inhibition of gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells.Two main kiwifruit cultivars (gold kiwifruit (GOK) and green kiwifruit (GRK))Both GOK and GRK protect WB-F344 cells from H2O2-induced inhibition of GJIC. both GOK and GRK blocked the H2O2-induced phosphorylation of Cx43 and ERK1/2 in WB-F344 cells. the chemopreventive effect of quercetin on H2O2-mediated inhibition of ERK1/2-Cx43 signalling and GJIC may be mediated through its free radical-scavenging activity.20302682
The vitamin C, total phenolic content (TPC), phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophyll contentsVitamin C, phenolic compounds, carotenoids and chlorophylls were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. TPC was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, and AAC using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assay.Actinidia kolomikta, Actinidia purpurea, Actinidia melanandra, Actinidia macrosperma, Actinidia arguta, Actinidia deliciosaThe highest concentrations of vitamin C and TPC were found for Actinidia kolomikta fruit.Among phenolic compounds, seven phenolic acids and three flavonoids were identified. The 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid prevailed in A. kolomikta, while tannic acid dominated in other species. The largest amounts of chlorophylls and carotenoids were identified as Actinidia macrosperma The antioxidant activity (AAC) of fruit extracts decreased in the order of A. kolomikta > Actinidia purpurea > Actinidia melanandra > A. macrosperma > Actinidia arguta > Actinidia deliciosa.20113214
Ursolic acidThis was conducted by testing whether ursolic acid inhibited the elevation of the rat plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of a lipid emulsion containing corn oil in rats.Root (Actinidia arguta)The inhibitory effects of ursolic acid, isolated from the roots of A. arguta, on obesity, might be attributable to the inhibition of lipid absorption through the inhibition of pancreatic lipase and by enhancing lipolysis in fat cells. ursolic acid inhibited phosphodiesterase activity in vitro Ursolic acid prevented the elevation of plasma triacylglycerol levels,enhanced lipolysis in rat fat cells.19641878
Total polysaccharide AEP and fours purified polysaccharides AEPA, AEPB, AEPC and AEPDBy hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, dialysis and gel filtration.Root (Actinidia eriantha)AEP and four purified polysaccharides could not only significantly inhibit the growth of mouse transplantable tumor, but also remarkably promote splenocytes proliferation, NK cell and CTL activity, IL-2 and IFN-gamma production from splenocytes, and serum antigen-specific antibody levels in tumor-bearing mice. the composition of the monosaccharides, uronic acid contents and molecular weight could affect their antitumor and immunomodulatory activity.19559777
The water-soluble polysaccharide from the roots of Actinidia eriantha (AEPS)The mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA 100 microg alone or with OVA 100 microg dissolved in saline containing Quil A (10 microg) or AEPS (25, 50, or 100 microg) on days 1 and 15. Two weeks later, splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, production and mRNA expression of cytokines from splenocytes, and serum OVA-specific antibody titers were measured.Root (Actinidia eriantha)AEPS had strong potential to increase both cellular and humoral immune responses and elicit a balanced Th1/Th2 response, and that AEPS may be a safe and efficacious adjuvant candidate suitable for a wide spectrum of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. AEPS remarkably increased the killing activities of NK cells from splenocytes in the immunized mice The Con A-, LPS-, and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation and the serum OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibody titers in the immunized mice were significantly enhanced by AEPS.19389450
Peel and pulp crude extractsAn antioxidative screening of kiwi fruit components (peel and pulp) crude extracts was carried out using specific assay media characterized for the presence of highly reactive species such as 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), H(2)O(2), and O(2). The Mo(VI) reducing power of the samples was also determined. The phenol and flavonoid contents were quantified.Peel and pulp (Actinidia deliciosa)One large peeled kiwi fruit contains 84.4 mg (141% of the USDA Recommended Daily Value) of ascorbic acid and 1.3% (4% RDV) of R-tocopherol.19358604
DA-9102Spontaneous dermatitis was induced by magnesium deficiency in hairless rats and this system was applied to assess the suppressive effects of DA-9102 on atopic dermatitis-like skin disease.Actinidia argutaOral administration of DA-9102 substantially suppressed the occurrence of spontaneous dermatitis. Eczematous skin lesions, water loss and scratching behavior were significantly decreased by DA-9102 in a dose-dependent manner.DA-9102 suppressed activation of leukocytes The decrease in the number of CD45RA+ cells was accompanied by a lower level of IgE in DA-9102 treated rats, and the reduction in the number of CD11b+ cells by DA-9102 in both periphery and skin was significant.decreased the levels of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) in the serum.18535171
Actinidin is a cysteine protease abundant in KiwifruitActinidin was purified from kiwifruit by salt precipitation and ion exchange chromatography.ActinidiaThese results address a novel and valuable collagenase, which can be used efficiently for hydrolysis of collagen and isolation of different cell populations from various solid tissues. actinidin can hydrolyze collagen types I and II at neutral and alkaline buffers. actinidin compared with type II or IV collagenase isolated intact human umbilical vein endothelial cells, hepatocytes, and thymic epithelial cells with viability more than 90%.18456944
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which was found to show anti-inflammatory activityIn the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of AP led to the separation and identification of a polyunsaturated fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which was found to show anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammatory effects of ALA, using acetic acid or carrageenan-induced inflammation models, were investi gated in mice or rats, respectively.Fruit of Actinidia polygama (AP)ALA significantly inhibited the acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in a dose dependent manner. ALA also significantly reduced a rat paw edema induced by a single treatment of carrageenan. anti-inflammatory activity of ALA might be due to the suppression of the expressions of iNOS and COX-2 mRNA. Exposure of LPS-stimulated cells to ALA inhibited the accumulation of nitrite and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the culture medium.17679548
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA),exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activityWe examined the effect of ALA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in the murine macrophages cell line, RAW 264.7. its effect on LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. the antinociceptive effect of ALA was also assessed by means of the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and Randall-Selitto assay.Actinidia polygama fruitsALA downregulates inflammatory iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-alpha gene expressions through the blocking of NF-kappaB and MAPKs activations in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, which may be the mechanistic basis for the anti-inflammatory effect of ALA. ALA inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs).ALA showed the potent antinociceptive effects ALA also inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) ALA has a strong inhibitory effect on the production of NO.17542608
Oleanolic acid (OLA)The ethanol-water extract of A. deliciosa root (EEAD) was fractionated into n-hexane (EEAD-He), ethyl acetate (EEAD-Ea), n-butanol (EEAD-Bu) and aqueous (EEAD-Aq) fractions according to their different polarity and solubility.The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of various EEAD fractions and OLA were carefully investigated by the methods of ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA), as well as the model of CCL4-induced liver toxicity in rats.Root extract (Actinidia deliciosa)The OLA-enriched EEAD-Bu extract had significant and concentration dependent hepatoprotective effect for the carbon tetrachloride induced rat liver injury. the hepatoprotective activity of the EEAD-Bu (at the dose of 120 mg/kg) was higher than that of the reference drug silymarin (at the dose of 60 mg/kg), and OLA acted as an important role in dose-dependent protection against CCL4 hepatotoxicity. the activities of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transanimase (AST) in rat serum decreased the lipid peroxidation (MDA) decreased 42 % and glutathione (GSH) increased 114 % in the rats liver homogenate.17392098
Linalool, 1,2-dimethyl-lindoline, linolenic acid methylester and (E)-phytolThe oil obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS, was characterized by the high content of monoterpenes.Leaf oil (Actinidia macrosperma)It exhibited a mild antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), a significant activity against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli), and no activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The test fungi were more sensitive to the oil.17365713
PG102T, and PG102E, could modulate Th1/Th2 pathways and suppress IgE biosynthesisThis study was performed to assess the therapeutic effects of PG102T and PG102E on the development of dermatitis in NC/Nga mice, characterized by the spontaneous onset of AD along with an elevated level of IgE under conventional conditions.Actinidia argutaPG102T or PG102E administration significantly reduced dermatitis severity as well as scratching tendency in conventional mice.PG102 may be effective therapeutic agents for the treatment of AD. The number of eosinophils and the expression of eotaxin and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine were decreased by PG102T or PG102E. the thickening of epidermis/dermis and the dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells including mast cells were greatly inhibited. The suppression of dermatitis by PG102 was accompanied by a decrease in the plasma level of IgE, IgG1, and IL-4 and also by an increase in that of IgG2a and IL-12.17195015
Purified polysaccharides from kiwi fruitsTo investigate potential dermatological activity purified polysaccharides from kiwi fruits (Actinidia chinensis L., Actinidiaceae) were characterized concerning monomer composition, linkage types and molecular weights and were tested under in vitro conditions for regulating activities on cell physiology of human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and skin equivalents.Kiwi fruits (Actinidia chinensis L., Actinidiaceae)Ten micrograms per milliliter of raw polysaccharide, neutral type-II-arabinogalactans, and acidic arabinorhamnogalacturonans of kiwi fruits stimulated cell proliferation of human keratinocytes (NHK, HaCaT) up significantly while mitochondrial activity was stimulated for nearly 25% in regard to control cells. Fibroblasts >130 microg/ml kiwi fruit polysaccharides increased proliferation and ATP-synthesis significantly, the polysaccharides led to a doubled collagen synthesis of fibroblasts compared to the normally strongly reduced biosynthetic activity.15389574
(+)-catechin,as a bone marrow cell proliferation-promoting compoundInvestigate the efficacy of (+)-catechin, as a bone marrow cell proliferation-promoting compound against the hematotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in mice.Actinidia arguta Planch (Actinidiaceae)(+)-catechin selectively enhances the recovery of the population of granulocytes reduced by 5-FU in mice. Intraperitoneally injected (+)-catechin (1 and 10 mg/kg per day) accelerated the recovery of the number of white blood cells (WBC) and platelets (PLT)15297028
(+)-Catechin ( 1) and (-)-epicatechin ( 2) were isolated as active compounds from the MeOH extractStem extract (Actinidia arguta)Compounds 1 and 2 stimulated the cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner in the range of 1 to 100 mg/mL,also stimulated formation of myeloid colonies and enhanced the effect of interleukin-3 (IL-3) to increase the number of colony forming-units in culture (CFU-c). In an ex vivo experiment using a model mouse of decreasing bone marrow functions, orally administrated 1 (100 mg/kg/day) stimulated IL-3-induced CFU-c formation of the bone marrow cells.12709898
Hexane, acetone, methanol and 70% methanol, and further fractionsKiwi gold fruits were extracted successively with hexane, acetone, methanol and 70% methanol, and further fractionated by silica gel and ODS column chromatographies.ActinidiaGold kiwifruit extracts contain valuable, various bioactive materials, which can be separated with each other. The antibacterial activity of 70% methanol extracts [70M0, 70M1, 70M2, 70M3, 70M4] was generally lower than that of more lipophilic fractions (hexane, acetone, methanol extracts), although each fraction did not show any specific antimicrobial action. All fractions were inactive against Helicobacter pylori. Five fractions H1, H2 (hexane extract), Al, A2 (acetone extract) and M2 (methanol extract) showed selective cytotoxic activity against human oral tumor cell lines, which was more sensitive than human gingival fibroblasts. More hydrophilic fractions [70M3, 70M4, 70M5] of 70% methanol extract displayed higher anti-HIV activity, radical generation and O2- scavenging activity.12127237
PolysaccharideStem (Actinidia arguta)7626211
A new polysaccharide compound (ACPS-R)Give intraperitoneally to the transplantable tumor bearing mice at different dose.Root (actinidia chinensis)The results indicated that ACPS-R acts as a new antitumor polysaccharide, and the treatment effect of Actinidia root in folk medicine is probably related to ACPS-R. the tumor inhibited,ACPS-R could also prolong the life of EAC-or P388-bearing mice, and increase the percentage of EAC-free mice.In addition, when ACPS-R was used in combination with 5-Fu, the antitumor effect was enhanced as compared with 5-Fu alone. A marked increase in cAMP levels and cAMP/cGMP ratio of spleen of EAC-bearing mice were observed after treatment of ACPS-R. The increase of both parameters nearly reached the normal levels of healthy mice. The increases of cAMP, cAMP/cGMP and tumor remission had statistical significance.2855056
SesquiterpenesAcNES1Using a genomics-based approach.Flower (Actinidia chinensis)Enantiomeric analysis of both AcNES1 products in vitro and floral terpenes in planta showed that (S)-(E)-nerolidol was the predominant enantiomer.22162874
Carotenoids,Lutein and beta-caroteneLCY-betaActinidiaThe accumulation of beta-carotene, the major carotenoid in these kiwifruit species, appears to be controlled by the level of expression of LCY-beta gene. Actinidia lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-beta) as the gene whose expression pattern appeared to be associated with both total carotenoid and beta-carotene accumulation. Phytoene desaturase (PDS) expression was the least variable among the different genotypes, while zeta carotene desaturase (ZDS), beta-carotene hydroxylase (CRH-beta), and epsilon carotene hydroxylase (CRH-epsilon) showed some variation in gene expression the accumulation of beta-carotene and lutein is influenced by the temperature at which harvested fruit are stored.19574250
Terpene volatile, alpha-farnesene and germacrene DAdGDS1 AdAFS1Dynamic headspace sampling, a functional genomics approach,enantioselective gas chromatography, Real-time PCR analysis.Green-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) cultivar 'Hayward' and its male pollinator 'Chieftain'Two terpene synthase (TPS) genes were isolated from a 'Hayward' petal EST library. one TPS produced primarily (E,E)-alpha-farnesene and small amounts of (E)-beta-ocimene, whereas the second TPS produced primarily (+)-germacrene D. both enzymes were localized in the cytoplasm, the site for sesquiterpene production.both TPS genes were expressed in the same tissues and at the same times as the corresponding floral volatiles. The results indicate that two genes can account for the major floral sesquiterpene volatiles observed in both male and female A. deliciosa flowers.19516075
TriterpenesStructures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic methods, including IR, UV, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR techniques.Root (Actinidia chinensis)The eleven compounds are following: 2α,3α,19-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (1), 2α,3β-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (2), 2α,3α,23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (3), asiatic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), 2α,3β,19,24-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6), 2α,3β,19-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (7), 2α,3α,24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (8), oleanolic acid (9), 3β-O-acetyloleanolic acid (10), 2α,23-dihydroxylmicromeric acid (11). compounds 2, 3, 4, and 8 exhibited significant, dose-dependently, antiangiogenic activity in the tested concentration range.22934692
Ascorbic acid (AsA)GPPWe systematically investigated AsA levels, biosynthetic capacity, and mRNA expression of genes involved in AsA biosynthesis in kiwi (A. deliciosa cv. Qinmei). Recycling and AsA localization were also monitored during fruit development and among different tissue types.Actinidia deliciosaThe amount of AsA, with its capacity for higher biosynthesis and lower recycling, peaked at 30 days after anthesis (DAA), and then decreased markedly up to 60 DAA before declining more slowly. L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP)had good correlation with the rate of AsA accumulation.21151561
Alkanoate esterUbiC9 AAT1 AAT2 AAT15 AAT16 AAT17 AAT18Test whether the variations in fruit volatile levels can be correlated with the genotype-specific apparent catalytic efficiency, quantification of methylsulfanyl-compounds, gene expression analysis.Closely related Actinidia chinensis genotypes and the commercial cultivar 'Hort16A'Quantification of methylsulfanyl-compounds from the headspace of ethylene-producing kiwifruits revealed little variation in their volatile composition but remarkable differences in the magnitude of the fruit volatile levels.Volatile levels of the potential precursor methional were increased in ethylene-producing A. chinensis kiwifruit and a close connection between (methylsulfanyl)alkanoate ester formation and ethylene synthesis in plants is proposed. The V'(Max)K(M)(-1) values of different (methylsulfanyl)alkyl-CoAs were in a similar range for most genotypes.21071110
Aqueous kiwifruit extractsThe metabolic profiling of aqueous kiwifruit extracts was investigated by means of high field NMR spectroscopy. A large number of water-soluble metabolites were assigned by means of 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The change in the metabolic profiles monitored over the season allowed the kiwifruit development to be investigated.Extract (Actinidia deliciosa)A large number of water-soluble metabolites were assigned. Specific temporal trends of aminoacids, sugars, organic acids and other metabolites were observed.clear trends of the relaxation time were observed during the monitoring period.20875584
The sesquiterpenes alpha-farnesene and germacrene DAdGDS1 AdAFS1Flower (Actinidia deliciosa)The sesquiterpenes alpha-farnesene and germacrene D dominated in all floral tissues and the emission of these compounds was detected throughout the day, with lower levels at night.20592812
Stigmast-3, 6-dione, beta-sitosterol, ursolicacid, beta-daucosterol, 2alpha, 3beta, 23-triol-12-en-28-ursolic acidChromatographic methods were used to isolate the compounds from ethyl acetate extract from the roots of Actinidia chrysantha and chemical and spectral methods were used to elucidate the structures of the isolated compounds.Root extract (Actinidia chrysantha)Five compounds were identified as stigmast-3, 6-dione (I), beta-sitosterol (II), ursolicacid (III), beta-daucosterol (IV), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-triol-12-en-28-ursolic acid (V).Those compounds are obtained from the plant for the first time.20112717
XyloglucanXG from the pericarp tissues of 36-h ethylene-treated kiwifruit was extracted as hemicellulose II (HC-II) with 4.28 M KOH containing 0.02% NaBH(4), and purified using iodine precipitation and subsequent anion-exchange chromatography.Gel permeation chromatography.Pericarp (Actinidia deliciosa)The molar ratio of glucose: xylose: galactose: fucose in the purified XG was 10: 6.9: 2.1: 0.3. purified XG had an average molecular-mass of 161 Kda,the lack of fucose in the kiwifruit XG, but a small amount of arabinoxylan and low M(r) glucomannan remained associated with this fraction.19778403
The two new compounds were elucidated as 2alpha, 3beta-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28, 30-olide and 2alpha, 3beta, 24-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28, 30-olideSpectroscopic (IR, NMR, and MS).Root fraction (Actinidia chinensis)Two new triterpenoids, 1 and 2, were isolated from the hepatoprotective AcOEt fraction of the roots of Actinidia chinensis, together with eight known 12-en-28-oic acids of oleanane or ursane type, 3-10.19697338
Two sesquiterpenes, (E,E)-α-farnesene and germacrene D, and one monoterpene, (E)-β-ocimene, are the main constituents. Interestingly, the monoterpene has been found only in petals, suggesting that it plays a specific roleAdGDS1 AdAFS1Flower (Actinidia deliciosa)The synthesis of terpene compounds is dependent on the availability of substrates for the TPS.both A. deliciosa TPS are located exclusively in the cytosol, in agreement with the lack of plastid N-terminus targeting sequence predicted for these TPS. The formation of (E)-β-ocimene by AdAFS1 implies that a number of GPP molecules might be available in the cytosol.19587061
Cyanidin- and delphinidin-based anthocyaninse describe and identify the anthocyanin profile of fruit of several Actinidia species.ActinidiaAnthocyanins of most Actinidia species are usually conjugated with either xylosyl-galactose or galactose, whereas A. deliciosa anthocyanins are conjugated with glucose and galactose.19572542
Linalool enantiomersEnantioselective biosynthesis of the linalool-derived furanoid and pyranoid linalool oxides was examined.Flower (Actinidia)The flowers of both species produced almost exclusively (S)-linalool.the A. polygama flowers were less discriminatory in their use of rac-d5-linalool and processed significant quantities of d5-(R)-linalool as well.19382237
Two new flavan-3-ols, 6-(2-pyrrolidinone-5-yl)-(-)-epicatechin and 8-(2-pyrrolidinone-5-yl)-(-)-epicatechin, as well as five known compounds, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, proanthocyanidin B-4, (+)-pinoresinol, and p-hydroxybenzoic acidThe structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation, particularly by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR studies. All the isolates were evaluated in vitro for inhibitory activity on the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs).Root extract (Actinidia arguta)Two new flavan-3-ols, 6-(2-pyrrolidinone-5-yl)-(-)-epicatechin (1) and 8-(2-pyrrolidinone-5-yl)-(-)-epicatechin (2), as well as five known compounds, (-)-epicatechin (3), (+)-catechin (4), proanthocyanidin B-4 (5), (+)-pinoresinol, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid, were isolated from an EtOAc-soluble extract of the roots of Actinidia arguta. compounds 1-5 exhibited significant inhibitory activity against AGEs formation with IC(50) values ranging from 10.1 to 125.2 microM.19336935
MonoterpeneA closed gas loop bioprocess.ActinidiaThe gas loop system led to a maximum alpha-terpineol concentration of 1,009 mg L(-1) and an average productivity of 8-9 mg L(-1) h(-1) which represents a doubling of the respective values previously reported. Furthermore, a molar conversion yield of up to 63% was achieved.19322596
The anthocyanins:Five anthocyanins were obtained and subsequently identified as delphinidin 3-[2-(xylosyl)galactoside], delphinidin 3-galactoside, cyanidin 3-[2-(xylosyl)galactoside], cyanidin 3-galactoside, and cyanidin 3-glucosideExtracted in acidified ethanol and isolated by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by preparative HPLC.ActinidiaDelphinidin 3-[2-(xylosyl)galactoside] and delphinidin 3-galactoside have not previously been reported in the genus Actinidia.19203266
Composition of green and gold kiwi fruit extractsFollowing a comparative analysis of the protein profiles in SDS-PAGE and IgE immunoblotting, a significant influence of conditions such as the ripening stage and the extraction method on the composition of green and gold kiwi fruit extracts was observed.ActinidiaA ripe fruit may have a different concentration of total proteins and a different amount of single components when ripeness is reached by different means of postharvest handling In summary, this study emphasizes the level of complexity associated with the preparation of extracts when a known and defined concentration of proteins/allergens is requested.19199584
The chemical constituents of n-butyl alcohol extract in the rootsThe constituents were separated with various chromatographic techniques and their structures were elucidated by means of physicochemical properties and the analysis of their spectral data.Root extract (Actinidia deliciosa)Six compounds were isolated and identified as eriantic acid B (1), 2alpha, 3beta, 24-trihydroxyursa-12-en-28-oic acid (2), 2alpha, 3alpha, 24-trihydroxyursa-12-en-28-oic acid (3), 2alpha, 3alpha, 23-tri-hydroxyursa-12, 20 (30)-dien-28-oic acid (4), 2alpha, 3alpha, 24-trihydroxyursa-12, 20 (30)-dien-28-oic acid (5), n-butyl-O-beta-D-fruto-pyranoside (6). Compounds 1-4, 6 were obtained from this plant for the first time. Compound 6 was obtained from the genus Actinidia for the first time.18831205
The volatile oils chemical constituents of rootsThe volatile oils fraction of roots of Actinidia deliciosa. were extracted by water vapor distilling, and then the constituents were separated and identified, by GC-MS.Root (Actinidia deliciosa)16 compounds were identified, accounting for 89.37% of all quantity.the principal volatile oils chemical constituents are Phenol, 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethl)-; 2-Propenoic acid, 3-(4-methox yphenyl)-, ethyl ester; 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-, methyl ester; Cyclotetrasiloxane, octamethyl-.18826142
3-O-trans-p-coumaroyl actinidic acid, as well as five known triterpenes, ursolic acid, 23-hydroxyursolic acid, corosolic acid, asiatic acid and betulinic acidThe structure of compound 1 was elucidated from interpretation of the spectroscopic data, particularly by extensive 1D and 2D NMR studies. All the isolates (1-6) were evaluated in vitro for their inhibitory activities on pancreatic lipase (PL).Root extract (Actinidia arguta)The structure of compound 1 was elucidated from interpretation of the spectroscopic data Of the isolates, the new compound 1 possessed the highest inhibitory activity on PL. The other four triterpenes (3-6) also showed significant PL inhibitory activity, with IC(50) values ranging from 20.42 to 76.45 microM.18481026
Extracellular matrix (ECM)The study used Actinidia deliciosa endosperm-derived callus to investigate aspects of the morphology, histology and chemistry of extracellular matrix (ECM) structures in morphogenically stable tissue from long-term culture.Callus (Actinidia deliciosa)Digestion with pectinase removed the membranous layer almost completely and exposed thick fibrillar strands and granular remnants.Indirect immunofluorescence showed low-methylesterified pectic epitopes labelled by JIM5 monoclonal antibody.18340450
Actinoside CThe separation was performed at 25 degrees C on ZORBAX Extend C18 column, using amixture of methanol and water (51:49) as a mobile phase.Leaf (Actinidia kolomikta)The results showed that the contents of actinoside C in the leaves of A. kolomikta were variety in different growth periods. The optimal collective date for A. kolomikta are in the middle ten days of June. Actinoside C could reach its highest content in the middle ten days of June, then the content would decrease in the middle ten days of July slightly, it could reach their lowest content in the middle ten days of August.18051901
The chemical constituents of rootChromatographic methods were used to isolate compounds from A. macrosperma and spectroscopic methods were used to identify the structures of the isolated compounds.Root (Actinidia macrosperma)All these compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time, compound 1, 2 were obtained from this genus for the first time. Eight compounds were obtained and identified as 12-oleanene-2alpha, 3alpha, 24-triol (1), isotachioside (2), asiatic acid (3), catechin (4), epicatechin (5), ursolic acid (6), beta-daucosterol (7), beta-sitosterol (8).18051899
The aroma volatilesComparisons were made between the aroma volatiles of the yellow-fleshed kiwifruit, Hort16A, at two different stages of eating ripeness: firm and soft. In vitro analysis directly after maceration using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). A comparison of the aroma concentrations from gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and APCI-MS headspace analyses.Actinidia chinensisThe firm fruit contained a small number of aroma compounds that the soft fruit did not contain.soft fruit containing higher concentrations and a larger number of esters than the firm fruit.much higher levels of aroma compounds in the soft fruit compared to the firm fruit APCI-MS headspace showed less bias toward enzymatically generated lipid degradation compounds.17616207
The chemical structure from the rootsColumn chromatography was used for isolation. Physicochemical and spectroscopic analysis were employed for structural identification.Root (Actinidia deliciosa)5 compounds were isolated and identified as 2alpha, 3beta, 19, 23-tetrahydroxylolean-12-en-28-oic acid( I ), 2alpha, 3alpha, 23-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid( II ) , 2alpha, 3beta, 19,23-tetra-hydroxyl-urs-12-en-oic acid( I ) , undecanoic acid( IV) ,beta-sitoserol( V ). I , IV and V were isolated from roots of Actinidia deliciosa for the first time.17571763
CatnipGC-MS and relative retention indices with n-alkanes as reference points were used for compound identification, and component relative percentage was calculated based on GC peak areas without using correction factors.Essential oil (Actinidia macrosperma)Dihydronepetalactone, iridomyrmecin, and dihydroactinidiolide are responsible for the catnip response of A. macrosperma. Actinine was not detected, and beta-pheylethyl alcohol was only present in wild plant. In addition, short-chain enol derivatives, messengers in chemical communication, are commonly present in wild plant of A. macrosperma, but absent in regenerated one.16909471
Soluble cuticular waxes in Actinidia deliciosa leavesSoluble cuticular waxes of foliar blade were extracted in chloroform and analysed by GC-MS.Leaf (Actinidia deliciosa)The alkyl alkanoates were the main class of components followed by hydrocarbons, terpenes, alkanols, ketones, alkanoic acids, alkanals, and sterols. The concentration of the soluble cuticular components reached a peak (43 microg cm(-2)) on the 83rd day after bud break.16753901
The cell-wall polysaccharides of outer pericarp tissuesAfter EDTA and alkaline extraction, the pectic and hemicellulose fractions were again treated with the combination of alpha-amylase and iso-amylase.Pericarp (Actinidia deliciosa)It was suggested that pectin in the outer pericarp of kiwifruit was degraded at the early stage of fruit enlargement, but XG remains constant during fruit enlargement and maturation. The amounts of predominant pectic sugars Gal, Rha and Ara, unaffected by the first and second amylase digestion, decreased markedly during the early fruit enlargement (8-12 weeks after anthesis, WAA), then increased during 16-20 WAA, and finally declined during fruit maturity (20-25 WAA). The amount of Xyl in the HC-II fraction decreased during the early fruit enlargement and fruit maturity, an observation that was consistent with xyloglucan (XG) content. The cellulose fraction increased steadily during fruit enlargement through maturity, but the XG contents in HC-I and HC-II fractions remained at a low level during these stages. The molecular-mass of pectic polysaccharides decreased during fruit enlargement (8-16 WAA), and then changed little during fruit maturity. The higher molecular-mass components of hemicelluloses in HC-I and HC-II fractions detected at the early stage of fruit enlargement (8-12 WAA) were degraded at the late stage of fruit enlargement (16 WAA), but then remained stable at the much lower molecular-mass till fruit maturity.16647859
Lilac alcohol epoxideGC–MS separations, Silica flash chromatography, Reverse phase (C18) flash chromatography, HPLC isolation of compound.Flower extract (Actinidia arguta)Lilac alcohol epoxide (2-(5-methyl-5-(oxiran-2-yl)-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)propan-1-ol), a previously unreported monoterpene, was identified The diastereomeric lilac alcohol epoxides co-occurred with the lilac aldehydes and alcohols.16455117
Cytotoxic phenolic constituents from the rootStructures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. The structure of 1 was further confirmed by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction determination.Root (Actinidia chinensis)Twelve phenolic compounds, including four novel skeleton phenolic compounds, planchols A-D (1-4), together with four pairs of isomeric flavanoids (5-12) were isolated from the root of Actinidia chinensis Planch (Actinidiaceae). it was found that 1 and 2 showed remarkable cytotoxic activity against P-388 and A-549 cell lines.16254829
Ascorbic acid and oxalateAscorbic acid was separated from oxalate in fruit extracts by HPLC and quantified from absorbance at 245 nm, whereas oxalate was measured enzymatically in the HPLC eluate.Actinidia chinensisOxalate is not a sink for excess ascorbic acid but that oxalate formation is regulated. Levels of whole fruit mean ascorbic acid in the different genotypes ranged from 98 to 163 mg/100 g of fresh weight (FW), whereas mean oxalate varied between 18 and 45 mg/100 g of FW. Ascorbic acid was highest in the inner and outer pericarp, whereas oxalate was concentrated in the skin, inner pericarp, and seed. Essentially no ascorbic acid was found in the seed.15769175
Vitamin CUsing ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.Actinidia deliciosa, Actinidia chinensis, Actinidia argutafruit, Actinidia argutaA. deliciosa cv. Hayward, contained 65.5 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) vitamin C. in A. deliciosa fruit varied from 29 mg/100 g FW to 80 mg/100 g FW. In most cultivars of A. chinensis, vitamin C content in fruit was higher than that of Hayward. In particular, vitamin C content in cv. Sanuki Gold fruit reached more than 3-fold that of Hayward on a weight for weight basis. In A. argutafruit, there was wide variation in vitamin C content. In cv. Gassan, Issai, and Mitsuko, vitamin C content of the fruit was much higher than that of Hayward. In A. arguta fruit, the ratio of L-ascorbic acid to total ascorbic acid tended to be higher than that of other species.15315387
Volatile compounds in fruit and flowersTwo different methods of volatile sampling (headspace and solvent) favoured different classes of compounds.Flowers and the fruit from several Actinidia arguta genotypesThe compounds extracted from flowers largely comprised linalool derivatives including the lilac aldehydes (12a-d) and alcohols (13a-d), 2,6-dimethyl-6-hydroxyocta-2,7-dienal (8), 8-hydroxylinalool (9), sesquiterpenes, and benzene compounds that are presumed metabolites of phenylalanine and tyrosine. Extracts of fruit samples contained some monoterpenes, but were dominated by esters such as ethyl butanoate, hexanoate, 2-methylbutanoate and 2-methylpropanoate, and by the aldehydes hexanal and hex-E2-enal. A number of unidentified compounds were also detected, including 8 from flowers that are so closely related that they are either isomers of one compound or two or more closely related compounds.12737978
Endogenous cytokinins in budsPost-embedding immunocytochemical techniques.Actinidia deliciosaThe studied cytokinins change their location during the culture period, although they can always be found to a greater or lesser extent in the nucleus and the cytoplasm.11858460
Carotenoid and chlorophyll compositionsThe carotenoid and chlorophyll contents in the fruit of four species of Actinidia were measured to determine the chemical basis of color in kiwifruit and related Actinidia species.Actinidia deliciosa, Actinidia chinensis, Actinida polygama, Actinida macrospermaRipe fruit of A. deliciosa contain chlorophylls a and b and the carotenoids normally associated with photosynthesis, beta-carotene, lutein, violaxanthin, and 9'-cis-neoxanthin. The carotenoids in A. chinensis were similar to those in A. deliciosa but also contained esterified xanthophylls. The major carotenoid in both A. macrosperma and A. polygama was beta-carotene, with no chlorophyll detected. The yellow color of A. chinensis was mostly due to the reduction of chlorophyll rather than an increase in carotenoid concentration.the green fruit of A. deliciosa retains chlorophyll during maturation and ripening, and esterified xanthophylls are not produced.11754554
GalactoglucomannanA combination of barium hydroxide precipitation, anion exchange- and gel-permeation chromatography.Structural characterisation of these oligosaccharides and the original polysaccharide was achieved by linkage analysis, 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and enzymatic hydrolysis.The primary cell walls of ripe kiwifruit(Actinidia deliciosa)It is concluded that the predominant structural feature of kiwifruit GGM is a backbone of alternating beta-(1-->4)-linked D-glucopyranosyl and D-mannopyranosyl residues, with approximately one third of the latter carrying side-chains at 0-6 of single alpha-D-Galp-(1--> residues (50% of the branches) or the disaccharide beta-D-Galp-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Galp-(1--> (50% of the branches), the substituted residues being separated by three or five unsubstituted monosaccharide units. a mixture of oligosaccharides, three of which (II, III, IV) accounted for more than 80% of the GGM. Oligosaccharide II beta-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Manp-(1-->, III beta-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-[alpha-D-Galp-(1-->6)]-beta-D-Manp-(1-->, and IV beta-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-[beta-D-Galp-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Galp-(1-->6)]-beta-D-Manp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Manp-(1-->, appeared in the molar ratio of 2:1:1.11383899
Ascorbic acidHigh-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Actinidia chinensis PlancThe minimal content (mg/g) of ascorbic acid was found in fruits of the cultivar Gaivard: 5.44 in juice, 1.14 in the skin, and 4.20 in the pulp.11357433
Seven phytoalexins (1-7)Peel of unripe kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Golden King)The new phytoalexin (1) was identified as 2alpha,3beta,23-trihydroxy-12,20(30)-ursadien-28-oic acid, and named actinidic acid. Phytoalexins 2-6 are known triterpenes but have not previously been described as phytoalexins. Phytoalexin 7 is the same triterpene as the phytoalexin of nectarine fruit.11302196
Phenolic compositionReversed-phase HPLC.Pulp and juice (Actinidia)Strongly acidic compounds were identified as derivatives of coumaric and caffeic acids, including chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, and a derivative of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The weakly acidic fraction contained epicatechin, catechin, and procyanidins (B3, B2, or B4 and oligomers). Hydrolysis of hydroxycinnamic acids occurred after enzyme addition and HTST treatment.The flavonol glycoside composition is the best identifier of kiwifruit juice. Flavonols were present as the glycosides of quercetin (glucoside, rhamnoside, and rutinoside) and kaempferol (rhamnoside and rutinoside).The concentration of phenolics was highest after high-temperature short-time treatment (HTST) of juice.10794642
Pectin, cellulose, xyloglucan, and callosePectin was visualized using three different methods: labeling of galacturonic acid residues, labeling of negatively charged groups, and labeling with JIM 5 (nonesterified residues) and JIM 7 (methyl-esterified) monoclonal antibodies.Actinidia deliciosaLabeling of pectin gave different results depending on the detection system used. Cellulose remained intact and labeled densely across the wall at all stages of fruit ripening. Negatively charged groups (cationic gold labeling) and, to a lesser extent, galacturonic acid residues (Aplysia depilans gonad lectin labeling) were preferentially located near the cell wall/plasma membrane boundary.A similar predominance of pectin labeling compared with cellulose also occurred at the middle lamella wedge near intercellular spaces. Distribution of xyloglucan was patchy at harvest but was scattered throughout the wall later in ripening.Alterations to labeling of xyloglucan indicated that some epitopes were differentially exposed. Cell wall pectin was available for labeling at all stages of fruit softening, but no clear differentiation of the middle lamella region was seen.10568777
Chemical constituents13C NMR, 1H NMR, IR and EI-MS.Root (Actinidia kolomikta)Two crystalline components I and II,I was identified as delta 7-stigmasterol and II was named alpha-kolomiktriose and elucidated as 2, 3-di-0-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-alpha-D-galactopyranose.1445647
KiwiionosideBy a single-crystal X-ray analysis of the acetate.Leaf (Actinidia chinensis)17226448
Pectic polysaccharides solubilizedPectic polysaccharides solubilized in vivo during ripening, were isolated using phenol, acetic acid, and water (PAW) from the outer pericarp of kiwifruit before and after postharvest ethylene treatment. Insoluble polysaccharides of the cell wall materials (CWMs) were solubilized in vitro by chemical extraction with 0.05 molar cyclohexane-trans-1,2-diamine tetraacetate (CDTA), 0.05 molar Na(2)CO(3), 6 molar guanidinium thiocyanate, and 4 molar KOH.Pericarp (Actinidia deliciosa)Considerable solubilization of the pectic polymers occurred during ripening without changes to their primary structure or degree of polymerization. Pectolytic enzymes such as endopolygalacturonase and beta-galactosidase were therefore implicated in the degradation of solubilized cell wall pectic polymers but not the initial solubilization of the bulk of the pectic polymers in vivo. Following solubilization, the polymers then became susceptible to depolymerization and degalactosidation.16668651
Chemical constituentsActinidia arguta1524665
A flavonol triglycosideBy 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.Actinidia argutaA flavonol triglycoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-[2G-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-6G-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl] glucopyranoside was identified.1367654
Dry matter and mineral nutrientsSize, dry weight and mineral nutrient content of fruit, leaves, shoots, canes, leader, stem and roots of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson var. deliciosa) vines, aged from one to five years, were measured.Vine (Actinidia deliciosa)The proportion of total dry weight in roots declined from the first to the third year and then remained approximately constant, whereas the proportion of dry weight in fruits increased from the first to the third year before attaining a more or less constant value. For vines of all ages, mineral nutrient concentrations in various tissues were similar, except that Ca in leaves and S in leaves and shoots increased with vine age. Estimated annual mineral nutrient uptake increased with vine size and fruit yield.14975822
The chemical constituents of the rootRoot (Actinidia chinensis)3835786
Its biologically active componentsActinidia polygama5341300